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Change permissions of files and directories separately in GNU/Linux using command line.
For Directories:

find location -type d -print -exec chmod 755 {} \;

For Files:

find location -type f -print -exec chmod 644 {} \;

Conditional permission changing

find location -type d -perm 777 -print -exec chmod 755 {} \;

Changes all directories(including sub-directories) with 777 permission to 755

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I was in my father’s house at Mankery for the previous two days. I was informed yesterday that all the 20 systems must be delivered tomorrow. Only four systems were complete at that time. I reached home by about 2PM today noon and the installation of 15 systems were complete by 10.30PM despite the frequent power failures and half an hour power cut.

The most helpful tool during the installation was “Symantec Ghost”, which helped to create copies of the hard disk. Its a DOS based software. But, DOS doesn’t have SATA drivers and the SATA CD drive won’t be detected as a drive, but the system can boot from the SATA disk drive. So, we copied the Ghost software to a drive and executed it from there after booting to DOS mode from the CD drive. Since it didn’t work with the Linux file system, ext3; we had to install Linux in each and every system but the additional burden of installing drivers and softwares in Windows was removed and the windows came up with all the drivers and softwares in just 5 minutes.

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With a few ISO files given by Shyam, I am starting a collection of various Linux Distros. I hope that a good collection of older and latest distros will be helpful for those who want to try and settle on Linux. The CD’s and DVD’s will be distributed to all those who want it, with just the cost of the CD/DVD and cover. My contact details can be seen here [this is a link]. Following CD’s and DVD’s are now available with me.


  • Debian Lenny Testing Official snapshot i386 – 1 DVD

  • Debian Lenny Testing Official snapshot i386 – 1 CD

  • Debian etch 4.0 r3 i386 – 1 CD

  • Debian etch 4.0 r0 i386 – 3 DVD’s

  • Debian etch 4.0 r0 i386 Live GNOME – 1 CD

  • Debian etch 4.0 r0 with SMC Softwares – 1 CD


  • Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Desktop Edition – 1 DVD

  • Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Desktop Edition – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 7.10 for PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 7.10 for 64-bit PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 7.04 for PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 7.04 for 64-bit PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 6.06 LTS for PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 6.06 LTS for 64-bit PC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 6.06 LTS for MAC – 1 CD

  • Ubuntu 5.10 for PC – 2 CD’s (Live and Install)

  • Ubuntu 5.10 for 64-bit PC – 2 CD’s (Live and Install)

  • Ubuntu 5.10 for MAC – 2 CD’s (Live and Install)

  • Ubuntu 5.04 for PC – 2 CD’s (Live and Install)

  • Ubuntu 5.04 for 64-bit PC – 2 CD’s (Live and Install)


  • Kubuntu 7.10 for PC – 1 CD

  • Kubuntu 7.10 for 64-bit PC – 1 CD

  • Kubuntu 6.06 LTS for PC – 1 CD

  • Kubuntu 6.06 LTS for 64-bit PC – 1 CD


  • Edubuntu 7.10 for PC and Server – 1 CD

  • Edubuntu 6.06 LTS – 1 CD

IT @ School GNU/Linux

  • IT @ School GNU/Linux 3.01 – 2 CD’s

  • School GNU/Linux by KSTA – 1 CD


  • Fedora 8 Live i686 – 1 CD

  • Fedora Core 6 – 5 CD’s

  • Fedora Core 3 – 4 CD’s


  • RedHat Enterprise Linux ES 4 (i386) – 4 CD’s

  • RedHat Linux 9 (i386) – 3 CD’s

  • RedHat Linux 7 (i386) – 2 CD’s


  • Mandrake Linux 10.1 – 4 CD’s (3 installation and 1 support)


  • SimplyMEPIS 6.5.02 32Bit – 1 CD


  • gNewSense Live Deltah 2.0 – 1 CD


  • Gentoo Linux 2007.0 x86 – 1 CD


  • Games Knoppix – 1 CD

I’ll be updating the details of the collection in my site; and also at the MESCE GNU Lab wiki.

I also started installing one among the 20 systems and is almost finished. What left is few softwares like SQL server. Installing other systems will be much easier after completing one as all the systems are alike and hence backup softwares like Ghost can be used to make copies of the entire hard disk. Haven’t tried it yet with SATA drives; hope it works.

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Modems are the major help for villagers to access net, since broadband connections haven’t reached much of the villages. And for Linux users, configuring a modem, which is originally designed for Windows(Winmodem) still stands like a giant wall.

Many of the modem manufactures are providing binary files of the drivers for Linux with the driver CD. Even though for a new user, its hard to compile, experienced  persons could help in configuring it. But, take the case of Conexant, one among the leading Modem Chipset manufactures. Usually, with every piece of hardware we purchase, we also get the drivers needed for working with it. But, Conexant isn’t providing drivers for Linux with the driver CD. Its ok. May be Linux is now growing up and many hardware vendors don’t provide drivers for Linux in the driver CD, but it can be downloaded from net for free. So, when we search for its drivers, what we will come across is a site named Linuxant, who provide Linux drivers for Conexant chipsets. But, the free drivers they provide is somewhat like a trial version, which supports just 14.4Kbps, while the modem can support upto 52Kbps. It means, with it, we can use the modem in Linux, but maximum speed is limited to just above 2KB per second…

Another funny thing is that they are providing full drivers for 20US$. The modem costs below INR 300(around 7US$) and for the driver we need to pay extra money, which is thrice the cost of  modem.

This is a fact to think about. Why is a company like Conexant behaving so to Linux?

I tried in every way to achieve the full speed, like what we usually do with softwares in Windows, but it doesn’t work. I even managed to make the driver say its full version, but still by calculating the data transfer rate, the speed is the old 14.4Kbps. Has anyone found any way to manage through this? If so, please help me…

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