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Having a gigabit connection and choosing a far-away mirror causing long time to update system is always frustrating. Its also hard to figure out the nearest mirror for every server, when you are dealing with servers deployed world-wide.

Luckily for Debian, there is a mirror selector which automatically finds the nearest one and uses it while working with apt.

To use it, replace the currently configured Debian mirror in sources.list with the following address:

e.g. for Debian jessie

deb jessie main contrib non-free

Its also available for Backports and older versions. More details at

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Script 1:

wget -O - -o /dev/null | bash

Script 2: (Credits)

wget 2>/dev/null -O- | bash
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Fail2Ban is an intrusion prevention framework written in the Python. It ban IP’s that makes too many failed attempts or performs any other unwanted action within a time frame defined, using iptables, thus helping the system admin to prevent attacks.

Though its very helpful, in an office network that has only one public IP and multiple users accessing the same server, there are chances that IP’s gets blocked more frequently. For Eg, let the setting be like 3 failed attempts on ssh port in 60 mins will block the IP for 2 hours. If 5 systems in a network access the server and any 3 of them makes one failed attempt, the IP gets blocked.

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Being a Debian user, I always like to experiment with the latest packages, and so I have many third party debian repositories listed in the sources.list file. Whenever I am adding it for the first time, I usually get the error:

“The following signatures couldn’t be verified because the public key is not available”

On googling multiple solutions can be found to add a public key using apt-key, but most of them has 3 or 4 commands, including downloading the key, move it to a file and then import. But the one line command that does the same is as below:

apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver_url --recv-keys key_id
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Recommended MX records and Priority for Google Apps accounts

Record Priority 1 5 5 10 10
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